Playing with Python

You heard that Python is a very cool programming language, right! So, why not take a look at it.

The main focus of this blog is to introduce Python to someone who already knows at least the basics of programming and would like to explore the world of Python 😍. So, If you are a completely new in programming thenn sorry mate! maybe this is not the right blog post for you. One more thing, we are using Python 3.

Photo by [Robert Collins]( on [Unsplash]( by Robert Collins on Unsplash


You don’t need to define the type of a variable in Python and don’t need to add a semicolon too.

# int number
lucky_number = 7

# float number
book_price = 10.5

# string
book_name = "Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire"

# bool
is_python_awesome = True


In the above code, the lucky_number variable is assigned with integer value 7 so Python will treat lucky_number as an int type and the same thing goes for other variables too.

The output of the above code is given below.

Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire

But there is a catch! If you assign again lucky_number variable with a string or floating point number, Python won’t give you an error. Everything in Python is an object. So, it will just create a new object of string or floating point type and lucky_number variable will have a reference to that newly created object.

# int number
lucky_number = 7

# float number
lucky_number = 101.101

# string
lucky_number = "My lucky number is Seven"

The output of the above code is given below. From the output, we clearly see that the type of lucky_number variable is changing with respect to the assigned value.

<class 'int'>
<class 'float'>
My lucky number is Seven
<class 'str'>

Taking Input

# string input
book_name = str(input("enter book name : "))

# int input
total_page_in_book = int(input("enter total page number : "))

# float input
book_price = float(input("enter book price : "))

Conditional Statement

The basic if statement in Python.

is_python_awesome = True

if is_python_awesome:
    print("This will print when is_python_awesome is True")
    print("This will print when is_python_awesome is False")

If statement with and or logic.

num = int(input("enter a number : "))

if num % 3 == 0 and num % 5 == 0:
    print(f"{num} is divisible by 3 and 5")
elif num % 3 == 0 or num % 5 == 0:
    print(f"{num} is divisible by 3 or 5")
    print(f"{num} is not divisible by 3 and 5")


This while loop will print 1 to 10.

# initializing number variable with 1
number = 1

while number <= 10:
    number += 1

This will print all the even number e.g. 2, 4, 6, 8, 10.

number = 1

while number <= 10:
    if number % 2 == 0:
    number += 1

This for loop will print 1 to 10. Here I used range function.

for i in range(1, 11):

This will print all the odd number in the range e.g. 1, 3, 5, 7, 9

for i in range(1, 11):
    if i % 2 != 0:


Functions don’t need to define a return type in Python.

def add(first_number, second_number):
    result = first_number + second_number
    return result

ans = add(4, 5)


A List is like an array in other programming language but more versatile. It is used to store a list of values.

Let’s take a look at lists with different data types. Python list indexes also start from 0.

# int list
prime_number_list = [2, 3, 5, 7, 13]

# float list
book_price_list = [10.5, 100.67, 250.5, 20.0]

# string list
favourite_game_list = ["pubg", "dota", "fifa", "cod"]

print(prime_number_list[0])  # it will print 2
print(book_price_list[2])  # it will print 250.5
print(favourite_game_list[1])  # it will print dota

You can also loop through the list easily. This will print all the prime number in the prime_number_list.

# int list
prime_number_list = [2, 3, 5, 7, 13]

for prime_number in prime_number_list:


A Tuple is similar to list but Tuple is immutable.

“Wait! What is immutable ?”

In Object Oriented Programming mutable objects can be changed after it is created and immutable objects can’t be changed after creation.

# int tuple
prime_numbers = (2, 3, 5, 7, 13)

# it will print 2, 3, 5, 7, 13
for prime_number in prime_numbers:

# mixed tuple
mixed_tuple_demo = (100, "hello", 'a', 10.5)

# it will print 100, hello, a, 10.5
for mixed_tuple in mixed_tuple_demo:


Set in Python is a data structure equivalent to sets in mathematics. Every element in Set is unique (e.g. duplicate element is not allowed) and must be immutable. Though all the elements in Set must be immutable Set itself is mutable e.g you can add and remove elements from a Set.

Set is an unordered collection. This means that if you loop through the set, elements may not appear as your input order or in which order you initialized the set.

“But Why??? It doesn’t look that much cooler!”

Calm down, folk! 😊 This allows checking if an element belongs to a set faster than just going through all the elements of the set.

int_set = {5, 6, 1, 3, 9}
# it will print 1, 3 , 5, 6, 9

mixed_set = {'a', 4, 1, 'abc', 2.0}
# it will print 'a', 1, 2.0, 'abc', 4

duplicate_value_set = {1, 5, 1, 5, 6}

# it will print 1, 5, 6
for element in duplicate_value_set:

In duplicate_value_set there are some duplicate values but when we are printing we are seeing just unique elements because the set doesn’t allow duplicate elements.


Dictionary is a key: value data structure in Python. Each key is mapped to a value and each key is unique. You can get the value using the key.

personal_dictionary = {'name': 'milton', 'password': 'abc123', 'country': 'Bangladesh'}

# it will print milton

# it will print Bangladesh

# it will print abc123

# updating password value
personal_dictionary['password'] = 'xyz123'

# it will print xyz123

# it will print all key value pair in dictionary
for key, value in personal_dictionary.items():
    print('key : ', key, ' value : ', value)

“But Hey !!! Where is our favorite main function???”

At first, we have to learn about a particular variable, name that Python interpreter defines before executing the source code. name is automatically set to main if the program is executed by itself. If the python source file is imported as a module, python interpreter sets the namevalue to that module name.

print("i love python.")
print("__name__ value : ", __name__)

The output of the above code when the source file is directly executed.

i love python.
__name__ value : __main__

Python doesn’t have a defined entry point (e.g. main function) like C++, Java. It executes a source file sequentially. We are using if statement to create the main function which will be executed if the file is loaded as the "main" module rather than as a library in another module.

Okay. Let’s look at an example with the main function.

def add(first_number, second_number):
    result = first_number + second_number
    return result

def print_welcome():
    print("Welcome to main function")

def main():
    first_number = int(input("input first number : "))
    second_number = int(input("input second number : "))
    result = add(first_number, second_number)

if __name__ == '__main__':

Variable Length Argument

Variable length argument means a function can receive any number of arguments.

First, let’s take a look at some positional and keyword argument example to get a clear idea.

foo(1, 2)          # two positional argument 1 and 2
foo(city='Dhaka')  # one keyword argument with keyword city
foo(5, a=6)        # one positional argument, one keyword argument

In the below code args can receive any number of positional arguments and the type of args will be tuple.

def my_sum(*args):
    total_sum = 0
    for number in args:
        total_sum += number
    return total_sum

result = my_sum(1, 2)
print(f"sum : {result}")

result = my_sum(1, 2, 3)
print(f"sum : {result}")

Python first fills the slots given formal arguments by passing positional actual arguments. Any leftover positional arguments are received by a variable prefixed with *.

In the below code, lucky_number will get the first argument of the my_args function.

def my_args(lucky_number, *other_numbers):
    print(f"lucky number: {lucky_number}")
    print(f"other numbers: {other_numbers}")

my_args(1, 2, 3, 4)
my_args(7, 10, 2)

The output of the above code.

lucky number: 1
other numbers: (2, 3, 4)
lucky number: 7
other numbers: (10, 2)

In the below code kwargs can receive any number of keyword arguments and the type of kwargs will be dictionary.

def my_keyword_arguments(**kwargs):
    print(f"type of keyword argument: {type(kwargs)}")

my_keyword_arguments(first_name='John', last_name='Doe')
my_keyword_arguments(first_name='John', last_name='Doe', address='Dhaka')


Here we are creating a circle class and using init()** **method to initialize the radius value. init() is a special method which is called after a new object is created.

In Python, we have to pass the class instance as the first parameter of a method and the below code we named it as self.

*self is not a reserved keyword in Python, it’s just the convention that everyone follows.*

class Circle:
    def __init__(self, radius):
        self.radius = radius

    def get_area(self):
        return 3.1416*self.radius*self.radius

my_circle = Circle(4)
my_circle_area = my_circle.get_area()

Notice that get_area method has a parameter named self but we didn’t pass any value for self when calling my_circle.get_area() because whenever an object calls its method Python automatically passes the object instance as the first argument.

The term method and function is not the same** **in Python. Methods are associated with object instance or classes and they need to pass the object instance as the first argument.

Now let’s learn about class variable and instance variable.

Class variables are shared by all the instances of a class.

Instance variables are unique to all instance of a class and defined inside a class method.

In the below code, we removed the hard coded value of pi with a class variable named pi So in every Circleclass instance the value of pi will be 3.1416.

class Circle:
    pi = 3.1416  # class variable

    def __init__(self, radius):
        self.radius = radius  # instance variable

    def get_area(self):
        return self.pi*self.radius*self.radius

my_circle = Circle(4)
my_circle_area = my_circle.get_area()

If you want to change the value of a class variable then you have to do it with the notation ClassName.ClassVariableName. Otherwise, you will end up creating a new instance variable with the same name as the class variable.

print(my_circle.pi) # it will print 3.1416
my_circle.pi = 5    # it creates a new instance variable named pi
print(my_circle.pi) # it will print 5
print(Circle.pi)    # it will print 3.1416

When you try to access a variable from an instance of a class then it first looks at its instance namespace. If it finds the variable then returns the associated value. If not found then it goes to the class namespace

so when you do print(my_circle.pi) the variable pi won’t be found in instance namespace, it will be found in the class namespace. So it will give 3.1416 as output.

After doing my_circle.pi = 5 , a new instance variable is created and assigned with value 5. So now print(my_circle.pi) will give 5 as the variable pi will be found in instance namespace.

Higher Order Function

A higher order function is a function that does at least one of the following:

  • takes one or more functions as argument
  • returns a function as its result

I have borrowed the definition from Wikipedia 😊

Now we have to learn a little bit about first-class citizens or objects in the programming language. First-class objects or citizens in the programming language is an entity which supports all the operations generally available to other entities such as being passed as an argument, returned from a function, modified, and assigned to a variable.

In Python, functions are treated as the first-class object. So, you can pass one or more functions as argument, return a function and assign a function to a variable.

Let’s look at an example of a function which takes another function as argument. In the below example, if we pass increment_by_one function to my_counter then the number will be incremented by one and if we pass decrement_by_one the number will be decremented by one.

def increment_by_one(num):
    return num + 1

def decrement_by_one(num):
    return num - 1

def my_counter(f, num):
    result = f(num)
    return result

incremented_num = my_counter(increment_by_one, 10)
print(incremented_num)  # it will print 11

decremented_num = my_counter(decrement_by_one, 10)
print(decremented_num)  # it will print 9

In the below example, get_proper_counter function is returning a function (increment_by_one or decrement_by_one) according to counter_type and we are assigning the returned function to a variable. Then we can use the variable as function.

def increment_by_one(num):
    return num + 1

def decrement_by_one(num):
    return num - 1

def get_proper_counter(counter_type):
    if counter_type == 'inc':
        return increment_by_one
    elif counter_type == 'dec':
        return decrement_by_one
        error_message = counter_type + ' is not a valid counter type'
        raise ValueError(error_message)

increment_by_one_counter = get_proper_counter('inc')
incremented_number = increment_by_one_counter(10)
print(incremented_number)  # it will print 11

decrement_by_one_counter = get_proper_counter('dec')
decremented_number = decrement_by_one_counter(10)
print(decremented_number)  # it will print 9


To learn closure, we have to learn about nested function in Python first.

A function that is defined inside another function is called a nested function. Nested functions can access the variables of the enclosing scope. In the below example, outer_function is the enclosing function, message is the enclosing variable and inner_function is the nested function. inner_function is accessing the non-local variable message and printing it’s value.

def outer_function():
    message = "hello world"

    def inner_function():

outer_function()  # This will print Hello World

A Closure is a function object that remembers values in enclosing scopes even if they are not present in memory. Now let’s update the above code to a closure.

In the below code, even if we deleted the outer_function the inner function can print the value of the message variable e.g. ‘“hello world”. Notice that we are now returning inner_function .

def outer_function():
    message = "hello world"

    def inner_function():
    return inner_function

inner = outer_function()
del outer_function  # deleting outer function
inner()  # it will print hello world

In the below code, multiplicand value is attached to multiplier function.

def make_multiplier_of(multiplicand):
    def multiplier(multiplier_value):
        return multiplicand * multiplier_value
    return multiplier

multiply_by_5 = make_multiplier_of(5)
result = multiply_by_5(3)
print(result)  # this will output 15

result = multiply_by_5(4)
print(result)  # this will output 20

multiply_by_10 = make_multiplier_of(10)
result = multiply_by_10(3)
print(result)  # this will output 30


Python decorator is the function that receives a function as an argument and returns another function as the return value. Decorators are called before the definition of a function you want to decorate.

In the below code capitalize is a decorator. It takes hello_python function as argument and returns capitalized value.

def capitalize(func):
    def convert_to_uppercase():
        result = func()
        return result.upper()
    return convert_to_uppercase

def hello_python():
    return "hello python"

capitalized_hello = capitalize(hello_python)
print(capitalized_hello())  # output:  HELLO PYTHON

We can use the @ symbol along with the name of the decorator function and place it above the definition of the function to be decorated.

def capitalize(func):
    def convert_to_uppercase():
        result = func()
        return result.upper()
    return convert_to_uppercase

def hello_python():
    return "hello python"

print(hello_python())  # output: HELLO PYTHON

Decorators can also take argument. In the below code, formatting decorator is taking lower_case argument and returns the result according to it.

def formatting(lower_case=False):
    def wrapper(func):
        def convert_to_appropriate_case():
            if lower_case:
                result = func()
                return result.lower()
                result = func()
                return result.upper()
        return convert_to_appropriate_case
    return wrapper

def hello_python():
    return "Hello Python"

print(hello_python())  # output: hello python

A function can be decorated many times. But the order of decoration affects how the final output will be.

def hello_python():
    return "hello python"

here, the interpreter is just doing hello_python = a(b(c(hello_python)))

If you are interested in algorithms and data structure implemented using Python then you can look at this Github repository.

I am also learning Python as a beginner and don’t familiar with many advanced and intermediate-level Python features and concepts. So, if I made any mistake please feel free to correct me and put your suggestions in the comment section.